Carpet is made using one of two methods: tufting or weaving. Like woven cloth, woven carpets are made
using a loom, and are often constructed of fine wool. While they're incredibly durable, woven carpets can be very expensive.
As a result of this, woven carpets make up only a very small percentage of the carpet market.
Making Modern Carpets
Most modern carpets are produced using a tufting machine. These machines are similar to sewing machines, only they're
much, much larger. Multiple needles at once work to produce yards of carpet at a significantly faster rate than weaving.
This swift production rate and low material cost puts tufted carpets in the low–to–medium price range.
Carpets are made with a staple or bulked continuous filament (BCF) construction.
Staple yarn comes in short lengths that are twisted together to form long yarn threads that will be tufted into carpet. BCF
yarns are made up of long fiber filaments plied together in connected fiber bundles. Staple fibers are used to manufacture
carpets with a thicker plush or lower face weight, while BCF yarns are known for their lack of shedding.
Making Tufted Carpets
Tufted carpets are made by starting out with a pre–woven backing. Yarn is tufted into it as it is pushed through
with needles. The tufts are held in place with "loopers". After this, a secondary backing will be applied to give stability
and allow the carpet to be stretched when it's installed.
Tufted carpets feature a loop pile, cut pile, or combination of both types. When the color is decided beforehand, the
carpet will be made with the appropriate color of yarn. Pre–dyed, or solution–dyed, carpets are dyed with a
solution before they're tufted. Post–dyed, or beck–dyed, carpets are dyed after the carpet has been tufted.
Tufted carpets can also be made of colorless yarn and later dyed or printed with a pattern or design. Simple geometric
patterns can also be produced by creating the pattern in the yarn and then tufting it into carpet using the tufting machine.
The final step for manufacturing carpet is generally adding stain protection. For cut pile carpets, this is also the
point at which the pile loops are cut.